Abstract—LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a next generation standard by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPPP) consortium. Speaking Email Notifier Free Download there. In this paper, the physical layer (PHY) of LTE.
High Speed Packet Access - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. HSPA sign shown in notification bar on an Android- based (Samsung) smartphone. High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). A further improved 3.
- L’HSPA+ (High Speed Packet Access+), parfois nomm
- LTE (both radio and core network evolution) is now on the market. Release 8 was frozen in December 2008 and this has been the basis for the first wave of LTE equipment.
GPP standard, Evolved High Speed Packet Access (also known as HSPA+), was released late in 2. The newer standard allows bit- rates to reach as high as 3. Mbit/s in the downlink and 3. Mbit/s in the uplink.
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Summary introduction to Wireless LTE* 4G architecture and key business implications L-F Pau, Prof. Mobile business, CBS email@example.com Das Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) ist ein Mobilfunkstandard der dritten Generation (3G), mit dem deutlich h But that doesn’t tell us what LTE actually is. LTE is what the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project, the group responsible for standardizing and improving UMTS.
However, these speeds are rarely achieved in practice. It also reduced latency and provided up to five times more system capacity in the downlink and up to twice as much system capacity in the uplink compared with original WCDMA protocol. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).
HSDPA has been introduced with 3. GPP Release 5, which also accompanies an improvement on the uplink providing a new bearer of 3. The previous maximum bearer was 1. As well as improving data rates, HSDPA also decreases latency and so the round trip time for applications.
HSPA+ introduced in 3. GPP Release 7 further increases data rates by adding 6. QAM modulation, MIMO and Dual- Cell HSDPA operation, i. Even higher speeds of up to 3. Mbit/s are possible with Release 1. GPP standards. Phase one introduces new basic functions and is aimed to achieve peak data rates of 1.
Mbit/s with significantly reduced latency. The improvement in speed and latency reduces the cost per bit and enhances support for high- performance packet data applications. HSDPA is based on shared channel transmission and its key features are shared channel and multi- code transmission, higher- order modulation, short transmission time interval (TTI), fast link adaptation and scheduling along with fast hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). Further new features are the High Speed Downlink Shared Channels (HS- DSCH), the adaptive modulation QPSK and 1. QAM and the High Speed Medium Access protocol (MAC- hs) in base station. The upgrade to HSDPA is often just a software update for WCDMA networks.
In general voice calls are usually prioritized over data transfer. User Equipment (UE) categories. The per- cell per- stream data rate is limited by the Maximum number of bits of an HS- DSCH transport block received within an HS- DSCH TTI and the Minimum inter- TTI interval. So for example Cat 1.
MBit/s (and not 1. MBit/s as often claimed incorrectly). Categories 1- 4 and 1.
TTI intervals of 2 or 3, which reduces the maximum data rate by that factor. Dual- Cell and MIMO 2x.
The data rates given in the table are rounded to one decimal point. HSDPA User Equipment (UE) categories. Category. Release.
Max. Downlink. Speed(Mbit/s). A value close to 1 in this column indicates that the maximum data rate can be achieved only in ideal conditions. The device is therefore connected directly to the transmitter to demonstrate these data rates.^The maximum data rates given in the table are physical layer data rates. Application layer data rate is approximately 8.
IP headers (overhead information) etc. Adoption. 1. 69 HSDPA networks support 3.
Mbit/s peak downlink data throughput. A growing number are delivering 2. Mbit/s peak data downlink and 2.
Mbit/s. CDMA2. 00. EVDO networks had the early lead on performance, and Japanese providers were highly successful benchmarks for it. But lately this seems to be changing in favour of HSDPA as an increasing number of providers worldwide are adopting it. During 2. 00. 7, an increasing number of telcos worldwide began selling HSDPA USB modems to provide mobile broadband connections. In addition, the popularity of HSDPA landline replacement boxes grew. Some are marketed with connection speeds of .
As a result, these services can be slower than expected, when in fringe coverage indoors. High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA).
This technology was the second major step in the UMTS evolution process. It was specified and standardized in 3. GPP Release 6 to improve the uplink data rate to 5. Mbit/s, extending the capacity, and reducing latency. Together with additional improvements which are detaileld below this creates opportunities for a number of new applications including Vo.
IP, uploading pictures and sending large e- mail messages. In the meanwhile HSUPA has been superseded by newer technologies further advancing transfer rates. LTE provides up to 3.
Mbit/s for downlink and 7. Mbit/s for uplink. Its evolution LTE Advanced supports maximum downlink rates of over 1 Gbit/s.